A series of portrait photographs taken by Pennoyer during the Italian campaign conveys the spirit and determination of the monuments officers that led them to take on such a formidable task. Pennoyer recorded more than just the bravado of this eclectic army unit. Incorporating select objects and props, he captured the unique style and personality of each of these highly individualistic men.
Upper left: Capt. Deane Keller, American professor of painting, Yale School of Fine Arts
Upper right: Capt. Cecil R. Pinsent, British architect and landscape designer
Lower left: Capt. Roedrick E. Enthoven, British architect
Lower right: Capt. Basil Marriott, British architect
Following the German authorities' order to evacuate a section of Florence by July 30, 1944, thousands of the city's inhabitants sought shelter in the Pitti Palace. As many as 4000 Florentines settled in the palace and attempted to resume their daily lives.
Dr. Cesare Fasola, the Uffizi librarian, and others examine a portable altar painted by Jacopo di Cione around 1360-65. The altar had been stored for safekeeping in the castle at Montegufoni. July 1945.
Lt. Col. Ernest Dewald, Director of the MFAA and professor of art and archaeology, Princeton University, and other Monuments Men examine treasures from the Holy Roman Empire after their restitution to Vienna.
On August 3, 1944 the library and museum of the Columbaria Society were destroyed. The archives, a trove of documents on the early history of Florence, were not burned; the salvaged books, codices and manuscripts were discovered heaped in a room of the Palazzo Mozzo Bardini in Florence.
The Polish Second Corps were instrumental in the defeat of the German Tenth Army at Montecassino and the subsequent opening road to Rome for the Allies. Polish soldiers, following the road from Cassino to Rome, uncovered statues of the Madonna and Child in a chapel of a church in Piedimonte. Although the church was in ruins, the Madonna and Child emerged relatively unscathed. May 1944.
The Arch of Trajan at Benevento, shielded with sandbags and braced with scaffolding, suffered only minor damage due to the protective measures taken by local art officials and monuments officers. September 1943.
A B-26 marauder of the first tactical Air Force, one of the ships that precision bombed the rail yards in Florence, flies over the Ponte Vecchia, the only bridge over the Arno River in this famous city, left standing by the Hun. Damage to buildings in the lower left of this picture was caused by German artillery fire. This picture was taken while the Germans still held this part of Florence. MAAF, August 3, 1944. (original text)
Capt. Pennoyer photographing the clearing of the tomb of Robert of Anjou in the church of Santa Chiara, Naples. The target of more than one hundred Allied raids, the church, like most of the buildings in Naples, was badly damaged. June 1944.
On February 15, 1944 Allied bombs hit and destroyed the Abbey of Montecassino. Despite appeals for the salvation of the abbey, which was on a list of forbidden targets, the majority of Allied commanders deemed the destruction a military necessity. Pictured here is the torso of a statue buried in the rubble of the Cloister of the Benefactors. June 1944.
Private William Scollie examines priceless paintings and statues found in an underground cave at Siegen, Germany. April 1945.
The ruins of an Italian church which the retreating German army dynamited at Baia e Latina, near Caserta, in an attempt to block the road in front of the advancing American Fifth army. AFHQ, Oct. 31, 1944. (original text)
Preparing to restore historic art works in Pisa. Historical structure which housed the Tombs of the Immortals in Pisa, Italy, partially destroyed during the battle for the liberation of the city. Wooden roof covered with lead burned completely and spilled to the floor. Workmen are shown cleaning up debris preparatory to the start of restoration under supervision of the allied military government. AFHQ, Sept. 16th, 1944. (original text)
Safeguarding civilians in Pisa.-Special U.S. Army Police use a mine detector on debris in front of a doorway in Pisa, Italy, before allowing citizens to enter the premises. AFHQ, Sept. 16th, 1944. (original text)
Nazi pilot captured after strafing Americans. A German Pilot rides into captivity after his plane, from which he was strafing American positions near Weisweiler, Germany, was brought down by anti-aircraft fire out of a formation of 25 Luftwaffe aircraft. AFHQ, Dec. 21, 1944. (original text)
Citizens of San Marino retire to Allied safety. Refugees from the republic of San Marino rest beside a river during their trek with their belongings to safety behind the Allied lines in Italy. AFHQ, Sept. 26, 1944.
In the wake of retreating Nazis, Madame Henri Max, whose husband and son were shot down by the Nazis before her eyes, views the wreckage of her home in Comblanchien, France, after it had been fired by the retreating Nazis. AFHW, Sept. 20, 1944. (original text)
Captured Nazi. A German soldier, captured by members of the First United States Army, near Strass, Germany, awaits transport to an internment camp. AFHQ, Dec. 28, 1944. (original text)
Life goes on in Florence. Mrs. Roven Mazzingotti and her family who are now living their simple life in the courtyard of Piazza Pitti. AFHQ, Aug. 25, 1944. (original text)
Maginot Line defenses used as home for French refugees. A U.S. sergeant talks to a French family who, with their mud-splashed possessions, have found refuge from the war and a temporary home in one of the underground tunnels of the Maginot Line, near Nancy, France. AFHQ, Dec. 13, 1944. (original text)