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Radiation Safety


 

Radioactive Compounds Approved for Drain Disposal

EHS has comprised a listing of compounds that have been evaluated and determined to meet the NRC criteria of solubility for drain disposal. If you know the name of the chemical you are looking for, use the first letter below, or just scroll though the list.  This list was based on an evaluation of compounds against the criteria established in NRC Information Notice 94-07, which specifies that liquid radioactive waste disposed via the sanitary sewer must be "readily soluble" or biologically dispersible. If the formal solubility of a compound is greater than 0.003 mole/liter, then the compound is "readily soluble". Anything else is classified as "not readily soluble".

The following compounds are approved for disposal to the sanitary sewer (via designated secondary disposal lab sinks) at Princeton University. If you wish to drain dispose of a compound not listed below, contact the Radiation Safety Officer for an evaluation of the compound. DO NOT dispose of the compound, until you have received written approval from EHS.

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 

A

Waste Name Waste Description

Acetyl CoA (coenzyme A)

A compound that functions as a coenzyme in many biological acetylation reactions and is formed as an intermediate in the oxidation of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.  
Adenine Contains only non-heavy metal acid and water

Adenosine Diphosphate
(ADP)

An ester of pyrophosphoric acid with the nucleoside adenosine. ADP is converted back to ATP by ATP synthases.

Adenosine Triphosphate
(ATP)

A nucleotide that occurs in muscle tissue and is the major source of energy for cellular reactions.

Alanine Amino acid

Albumin(s)

Proteins that are found in egg white, milk and other plant and animal tissues.

Aminobutyric Acid
(GABA is the γ form)

Functions as a neurotransmitter in γ (gamma) form. 

Arachidonic
Acid
An omega-6 fatty acid
Arginine Amino Acid
Asparagine Amino Acid
Avidine A tetrameric protein produced in the oviducts of birds, reptiles and amphibians which is deposited in the whites of the eggs.

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B

Waste Name Waste Description

Beta-Glucuronidase, type VIII

Human -glucuronidase is a type of glucuronidase (a member of glycosidase Family 2) that catalyzes hydrolysis of -D-glucuronic acid residues from the non-reducing end of mucopolysaccharides (also referred to as glycosaminoglycans) such as heparan sulfate.
Bicine

One of the zwitterionic amino acids that is used as a biological buffer.
N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)glycine

Buffer Solutions

MES, ADA, PIPES, ACES, Cholamine chloride, BES, TES, HEPES, Acetamidoglycine, Tricine, Glycinamide, Bicine, Tris

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C

Waste Name Waste Description
Cacodylate dimethylarsinic acid
Calcium Chloride (CaCl2) Used in electrolyte replacement and has been used as a diuretic, urinary acidifier, and antiallergic. 
CAPS N-cyclohexyl-3-aminopropanesulfonic acid

Carnosine

Naturally occurring dipeptide found in muscle tissue. 

Carotene Synthesized by plants, carotene is an orange photosynthetic pigment important for photosynthesis.

Chloramphenicol*

Broad spectrum antibiotic.  *Check regs., possible carcinogen, so process accordingly.  Solubility 2.5mg/ml. 

Choline chloride

Choline plays a critical role in the management of cholesterol as well as involvement in the production of hormones in the body, and is utilized in the transmission of nerve impulses. 

Citrulline

Amino acid that was first isolated from the juice of watermelon.  Used in the treatment of asthenia. 

Clonidine hydrochloride

Adrenergic agonist that is used as an antihypertensive as well as in shaving soaps.  Also used as an epidural injection. 

Cortisol Usually referred to as the "stress hormone" as it is involved in response to stress and anxiety, controlled by CRH.
Cortisone A steroid hormone. Chemically, it is a corticosteroid closely related to corticosterone.

Cyclic
Adensoine-3,5-monophoshate
(CAMP)

cAMP is derived from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and used for intracellular signal transduction in many different organisms.

Cysteine

An amino acid that has been used as a detoxicant in animals.

Cystine Amino acid

Cytidine

A nucleoside, it is a constituent of RNA that is formed by ribose (a sugar) being linked to cytosine. 

Cytidine
Diphosphate
(CDP)
CDP is an ester of pyrophosphoric acid with the nucleoside cytidine. CDP consists of the pyrophosphate group, the pentose sugar ribose, and the nucleobase cytosine.
Cytidine
Triphosphate
(CTP)
CTP is used as the source of energy, and as a coenzyme in metabolic reactions like the synthesis of glycerophospholipids and glycosylation of proteins.
Cytosine One of the four bases of DNA, it is widely distributed in nature.

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D

Waste Name

Waste Description

Dextran A group of long-chain polymers of glucose that have various molecular weights. They are used in lacquers, as food additives, and as plasma volume expanders.
Dihydrotetrabenazine

A radioligand that binds specifically to dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine-using cells.  Used in various aspects of psychological research.

Dihydroxyphenylethyl-amine or deoxyepinephrine

The hydrochloride form is soluble and is used as an adrenergic and vasoconstrictor. 

Dopamine hydrochloride

Endogenous catecholamine with a and b-adrenergic activity.  Used as a cardiotonic and antihypotensive. 

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E

Waste Name Waste Description

EGCG (epigallocatechin gallate)

Found in green tea.  In research it has shown to be a powerful antioxidant.
Endorphin The endogenous opioid polypeptide compounds. They are produced by the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus in vertebrates.
Epinephrine A hormone and neurotransmitter; it is a catecholamine, a sympathomimetic monoamine derived from the amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine.
Estrogen A group of steroid compounds, named for their importance in the estrous cycle, and functioning as the primary female sex hormone.

F

Waste Name Waste Description

Ferritin

Iron storage protein that is found in the spleen, liver, intestinal mucosa of vertebrates and is widely distributed in the plant and animal kingdoms.

Folic Acid

Folic acid (also known as Vitamin M and Folacin) and Folate (the anionic form) are forms of the water-soluble Vitamin B9.
Follicle Stimualating
Hormone (FSH)
A hormone synthesized and secreted by gonadotropes in the anterior pituitary gland. FSH regulates the development, growth, pubertal maturation, and reproductive processes of the human body.

G

Waste Name Waste Description

Gamma Amino-
butyric Acid
(GABA)

A non-protein amino acid that functions as a neurotransmitter. Antihypertensive.

Galactose

A sugar that is obtained by the decomposition of milk sugar (lactose).

Glucagon Glucagon is an important hormone involved in carbohydrate metabolism.

Glucose or Dextrose

Normal human blood contains 0.08-0.1% glucose.

Glutamine Amino acid

Glutathione

A polypeptide of glycine, cystine, and glutamic acid that occurs widely in plant and animal tissues and is important in biological oxidation-reduction reactions.

Glycerol

Obtained from oils and fats as byproduct in the manufacture of soaps and fatty acids.  Used as a solvent, emollient, sweetener, as well as many other uses.

Glycine

A non-essential amino acid with gelatin and silk fibroin being the best sources.

Guanosine
Monophosphate
(GMP)

GMP, is a nucleotide that is found in RNA. It is an ester of phosphoric acid with the nucleoside guanosine. Also know as guanylic acid and guanosine phosphoric acid.

Guanosine
Triphosphate
(GTP)

A high energy compound, similar to ATP, but with three phosphate groups linked to guanosine instead of adenosine as in ATP.

H

Waste Name Waste Description
HEPES One of the zwitterionic amino acids that is used as a biological buffer.
4-2-hydroxyethyl-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid

H-Gastrin

Gastrointestinal hormones that stimulate the secretion of gastric juice.

Histidine

HIstidine is one of the 20 standard amino acids present in proteins. In the nutritional sense, in humans, histidine is considered an essential amino acid, but mostly only in children. Its codons are CAU and CAC.

Hydroxytryptamine HCl
(Serotonin)

A neurotransmitter involved in sleep, depression, and memory.

I

Waste Name Waste Description

Immunoglobulins (IgG)

They are antibodies that provide protection against infectious agents.

Inositol

A group of nine isomeric alcohols that are widely distributed in plants and animals and is classified as a member of the vitamin B complex.

Insulin A hormone with extensive effects on both metabolism and several other body systems (eg, vascular compliance).

Interleukins

Group of naturally occurring polypeptides produced by lymphocytes and monocytes.

Iodoantipyrine

Radioligand used to quantitatively monitor cerebral blood flow.

K

Waste Name Waste Description
Kainic Acid Amino acid used to ID a specific subset of excitotoxic amino acid receptors.

L

Waste Name Waste Description

Leucine

An essential amino acid that is found as a structural element on the interior of proteins and enzymes.

Lipids Any fat-soluble (lipophilic), naturally-occurring molecule, such as fats, oils, waxes, cholesterol, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, phospholipids, and others.
Lipopolysaccharides Large molecules consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide joined by a covalent bond; they are found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, act as endotoxins and elicit strong immune responses in animals.
LTH
(Equine arteritis virus
leader TRS hairpin )
An RNA element that is thought to be a key structural element in discontinuous subgenomic RNA synthesis and is critical for leader transcription-regulating sequences (TRS) function.

Lysine

Essential amino acid that appears to help the body absorb and conserve calcium.

M

Waste Name Waste Description

Magnesium Chloride

Used in disinfectants, fire extinguishers, and as a reagent in analytical chemistry.

Mannitol

Widespread in plants and used as a diuretic, nutritive sweetener, and other uses.

Mannose

A simple sugar that is used in commercial fermentation and also as a fertilizer.

MES One of the zwitterionic amino acids that is used as a biological buffer.
2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid

Methionine

An essential amino acid that is the principle supplier of sulfur, which prevents disorders of the hair, skin and nails; helps lower cholesterol levels by increasing the liver's production of lecithin.

Mevalonolactone

Cyclic form of mevalonic acid.  Precursor for cholesterol and steroid hormones.

MOPS

One of the zwitterionic amino acids that is used as a biological buffer.
[3-(N-morpholino)propanesulfonic acid]

Muscimol

A potent CNS depressant isolated from the mushroom Amanita muscaria that is used to study GABA receptors.

N

Waste Name Disposal Method 

Nicotinamide
Aadenine
Ddinucleotide
(NAD)

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is a coenzyme found in all living cells. The compound is a dinucleotide, since it consists of two nucleotides joined through their phosphate groups: with one nucleotide containing an adenine base, and the other containing nicotinamide

Naloxone

An alkaloid antagonist of morphine, heroin and of the opiate peptides.

Naltrindole

A non-peptide opioid receptor antagonist that is used in opioid research.

Nociceptin

A neuropeptide that may modulate pain reception (hyperalgesia or analgesia).

Norepinephrine A catecholamine with dual roles as a hormone and a neurotransmitter.

O

Waste Name Waste Description
Oleic Acid a monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid found in various animal and vegetable sources. The saturated form of this acid is stearic acid.
Ornithine

Ornithine is an amino acide and one of the products of the action of the enzyme arginase on L-arginine, creating urea.

Orthophosphate A mineral (inorganic) acid having the chemical formula H3PO4. Phosphate salts that are commonly used for preparing buffer solutions at cell pH.

Oxytocin

Stimulating hormone that produces uterine contractions and lactation.

P

Waste Name Waste Description
PEG-400

Used as a water-soluble lubricant and as an ointment base among other uses.

Phenylalanine

An essential amino acid normally converted to tyrosine in the human body.

PIPES One of the zwitterionic amino acids that is used as a biological buffer.
piperazine-N,N-bis(2-ethanesulfonic acid)
Polysaccharides Polymers made up of many monosaccharides joined together by glycosidic bonds. Examples include storage polysaccharides such as starch and glycogen and structural polysaccharides such as cellulose and chitin.
Prolactin A peptide hormone primarily associated with lactation.

Proline

A non-essential amino acid that is a major constituent of collagen.

Prostaglandin Any member of a group of lipid compounds that are derived enzymatically from fatty acids and have important functions in the animal body.
Purine A heterocyclic aromatic organic compound, consisting of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring.

Putrescine

A colorless, foul-smelling ptomaine produced in decaying animal tissue by the decarboxylation of ornithine.

Pyrimidine A heterocyclic aromatic organic compound similar to benzene and pyridine, containing two nitrogen atoms at positions 1 and 3 of the six-member ring.

R

Waste Name Disposal Method 

Raclopride

Used to quantify the effects of drug treatment on the density of D-2/D-3 receptors (dopamine receptors) in various regions of the brain.

Rat Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH or thyrotropin)

TSH is a useful marker in classification of pituitary tumors and the study of pituitary disease.

Retinol Retinol is among the most useable forms of vitamin A.
Ribonucleic Acid
(RNA)
A nitrogenous base, a ribose sugar, and a phosphate. RNA is very similar to DNA, but differs in a few important structural details: in the cell, RNA is usually single-stranded, while DNA is usually double-stranded; RNA nucleotides contain ribose while DNA contains deoxyribose (a type of ribose that lacks one oxygen atom); and RNA has the base uracil rather than thymine that is present in DNA.

S

Waste Name Disposal Method 
Saline solution A sterile solution of sodium chloride (table salt) in water. 
Sarcosine Amino acid
Saxitoxin A neurotoxin naturally produced by certain species of marine dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria.
Serine An amino acid, serine is required for the metabolism of fat, tissue growth and the immune sys. as it aids in the production of immunoglobulins and antibodies.
Seritonine A monoamine neurotransmitter synthesized in serotonergic neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract of animals including humans. Serotonin is also found in many mushrooms and plants, including fruits and vegetables.
SSC Saline sodium citrate
Statine Amino acid

T

Waste Name Disposal Method 
Taurine Amino acid
Taurocholic Acid A deliquescent yellowish crystalline bile acid involved in the emulsification of fats. It occurs as a sodium salt in the bile of mammals.
TES 2-{[tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl]amino} ethane-sulfonic acid
Threonine Amino acid
Thromboxane A member of the family of lipids known as eicosanoids. Thromboxane is named for its role in clot formation (thrombosis).
Thymidine Nucleoside composed of thymine and deoxyribose.
Tricine One of the zwitterionic amino acids that is used as a biological buffer.
N-tris(hydroxymethyl)methylglycine
Tris tris(hydroxymethyl)methylamine
Tryptophoan Amino acid
Tyrosine Amino acid

U

Waste Name Disposal Method 
Urea An organic compound with the chemical formula (NH2)2CO.
Uridine
Diphosphate
(UDP)
UDP is an ester of pyrophosphoric acid with the nucleoside uridine. UDP consists of the pyrophosphate group, the pentose sugar ribose, and the nucleobase uracil.
Uridine
Triphosphate
(UTP)
A phosphorylated nucleoside of uridine. Its main role is as substrate for the synthesis of RNA during transcription.

V

Waste Name Disposal Method 
Valine Amino acid
Vitamins of the B Complex (See below)

B1 (Thiamine)

Thiamine is necessary for energy and carbohydrate metabolism.

B3 (Niacin)

Niacin is needed to release energy from carbohydrates.

B5 (Pantothenic Acid)

Pantothenic Acid is needed for energy production and in the creation of acetylcholine.  It is also needed to release energy from fat.

B6 (Pyroxidine)

Pyroxidine is needed to process amino acids as well as dopamine, melatonin, and serotonin.

B12 (Cobalamin)

Cobalamin is needed for nerve cell activity as well as DNA replication.

Biotin

Biotin is needed in the production of glucose.

Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) Vitamin C is an antioxidant and is needed to make collagen for muscles and blood vessels as well as help in wound healing.

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